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Many women want to have children.  For any woman, there is always some risk that a child will be born with a birth defect.  Suppose the following were true.  How likely would you be to advise a woman with a birth defect either to consider having children or not to consider having them?  Consider the two statements about birth defects separately.

1.  A report from Norway describes the first large study to provide information about the lives of women with birth defects and the health of their children: Birth defects are seen in 3.8 percent of babies whose mothers had birth defects versus 2.4 percent of those born to normal mothers.

2.  Sometimes women with birth defects give birth to children.  The rate of birth defects in those cases is 160% that of mothers without birth defects.

3.  Suppose your doctor was treating you for cancer and asked if you would be interested in participating in medical research about the cancer.  What do you think your response would be?