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Many women want to have children.  For any woman, there is always some risk that a child will be born with a birth defect.  Suppose the following were true.  How likely would you be to advise a woman with a birth defect either to consider having children or not to consider having them?  Consider the two statements about birth defects separately.

1.  A report from Norway describes the first large study to provide information about the lives of women with birth defects and the health of their children: Women with birth defects have normal babies a surprisingly high 96 percent of the time, Norwegian researchers reported today in the New England Journal of Medicine.

2.  What would you advise if this were the case? Mothers with birth defects are 1.6 times as likely than other women to have children with birth defects.

3.  Suppose your doctor was treating you for cancer and asked if you would be interested in participating in a medical experiment about the cancer. What do you think your response would be?