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Many women want to have children.  For any woman, there is always some risk that a child will be born with a birth defect.  Suppose the following were true.  How likely would you be to advise a woman with a birth defect either to consider having children or not to consider having them?  Consider the two statements about birth defects separately.

1.  A new report from Norway describes the first large study to provide information about the lives of women with birth defects and the health of their children: the women are less likely to have children, and those who do give birth run an increased risk of bearing a child with the same birth defect that they themselves have. But most children born to women with birth defects are healthy, and they face no increased risk of any type of defect except their mother's.

2.  What would you advise if this were the case? Mothers with birth defects are 60 percent more likely than other women to have children with birth defects.

3.  Suppose your doctor was treating you for cancer and asked if you would be interested in participating in a clinical investigation about the cancer.  What do you think your response would be?